Добавить в избранное
GPP
GACP

Для содержимого этой страницы требуется более новая версия Adobe Flash Player.

Получить проигрыватель Adobe Flash Player






Chapter 7. Specify the System Development Details

 

Overview

Introduction

This topic looks at the fourth step in the validation process, specifying the system development details.

 

What You Should Specify to the Supplier

Introduction

You should specify to the supplier (whether this supplier be an internal Company-IR group or a third party) that they must have:

·         a good methodology in order to develop a system

·         a formal quality management system for the development, supply and maintenance of the system

You should also make the supplier aware of the fact that the Company may audit.

These are the standards that should be in place in order to develop a system that can be validated.

 

Good methodology

The supplier’s system must be developed using a good methodology that uses a life cycle approach.

Note: A general description of a system life cycle methodology can be found in the IR Policy Manual and other references (See, References in the Reference Material part of this document).

 

Formal quality management system

The supplier’s computer system must be developed using a formal quality management system.

Adherence to a quality management system should provide sufficient documentary evidence for subsequent acceptance by the validation team.

 

Quality management procedures

The quality management system should include procedures associated with:

·         documentation control

·         project management

·         quality planning

·         life cycle definition

·         testing

·         configuration management

·         programming/technical development standards

 

User Requirements Specification

 

Introduction

A good methodology and quality plan will ensure that a user requirements specification is developed.

This topic looks at the user requirements specification.

 

General details

The user requirements specification:

·         describes the functions that a system or system component must or should be capable of performing

·         is generally developed by the user in the initial stages of a system development or system selection process

·         is written in general terms and specifies what needs to be done, not how it will be done

·         is independent of the specific application program (technically non specific) that will be written or purchased

 

Techniques to capture requirements

The following techniques may be used to capture relevant user requirements:

·         workshops (such as critical requirements analysis workshops)

·         interviews

·         presentations

·         data modeling

·         data flow diagrams

 

Relationship with PQ and SQ

The user requirements specification will be used as the basis for the development of the system acceptance test scripts / performance qualification test scripts (See, the topic Performance Qualification in Chapter 8 - Perform Qualification Activities).

The user requirements specification will be reviewed during the specification qualification (See, the topic Specification Qualification in Chapter 8 - Perform Qualification Activities).

 

Functional Specification

 

Introduction

A good methodology and quality plan will ensure that a functional specification is developed.

This topic looks at the functional specification.

 

General details

The functional specification, or system specification:

·         describes in a high-level manner, the hardware, software and peripherals that make up the computer system as a whole (Note: In system development terms, this specification will form the basis of system testing.)

·         describes how the specific system to be purchased or developed will meet the user and functional requirements

·         describes the specific user requirements that will not be met by the system

·         should include reference to the data model to be used

·         should define the functionality that does not relate directly to the user interface (e.g. system interfaces)

·         should define the non-functional requirements such as performance and availability.

 

Recommendation

It is recommended that a system description should be included as part of the functional specification.

 

Produced by

The functional specification is produced by the system developer/supplier.

 

When a functional specification is produced

The functional specification may be produced:

·         when a new application is being developed

·         when the users need to be exposed to the system before finalizing their requirements

 

Prototyping

The functional specification may be produced from a prototyping exercise in order to model the required user interface.

The use of prototypes should be carefully controlled (e.g. by time boxing and controlling the number of iterations) and maintained within the scope of the User Requirements Specification.

The agreed prototype forms part of the functional specification and can be used as the basis for a first pass conference room pilot.

 

Note

Functional specifications can comprise mechanical, electrical, and software function specifications for systems embedded in manufacturing equipment.

 

Relationship with OQ and DQ

The functional specification will be used as the basis for the development of systems acceptance test scripts / operational qualification test scripts.

The functional specification is reviewed as part of Design Qualification (See, the topic Design Qualification in Chapter 8 - Perform Qualification Activities).

 

Design Specification

 

Introduction

A good methodology and quality plan will ensure that a design specification is developed.

This topic looks at the design specification.

 

General details

The design specification is a complete definition of the equipment or system in sufficient detail to enable it to be built.

This specification will form the basis of module/integration testing.

 

Relationship with DQ and IQ

The design specification is reviewed in the:

·         Design Qualification

·         Installation Qualification - The design specification is used to check that the correct equipment or system is supplied to the required standards and that it is installed correctly.

(See, Chapter 8 - Perform Qualification Activities).

 

Documentation

 

Introduction

A good methodology and quality plan will ensure that several types of documentation are developed.

This topic looks at the following types of documentation:

·         end-user documentation

·         administration documentation

·         system support documentation

 

End-user documentation

End-user documentation comprehensively describes the functional operation of the system.

This documentation should include:

·         some means of problem solving for the user such as an index, trouble-shooting guide and description of error messages

·         comprehensive drawings of the system, if applicable

End-user documentation is generally produced by the supplier or developer and should be updated each time the system changes.

 

Administration documentation

Administrator documentation is written for the administrator (the user who will maintain and administer the system).

This documentation:

·         describes how to perform the administrator functions, such as:

·         system configuration

·         adding users to the system

·         setting up levels of security

·         setting up and maintaining master control records

·         may be a special section of the end-user documentation or it may be provided as a separate document

Administration documentation is provided by the supplier.

 

System support documentation

System support documentation describes the system administration activities that are specific to the software.

These administration activities include:

·         configuration of the environment

·         installation

·         maintenance documentation

·         the running of batch jobs

System support documentation is provided by the supplier or developer for the system administrator.

 

Testing

 

Introduction

A good methodology and quality plan will ensure that several types of testing are undertaken throughout the development life cycle.

This topic looks at the following types of testing:

·         module testing

·         integration testing

·         system acceptance testing

·         stress testing

 

Module testing

Module testing - sometimes known as unit testing - is testing at the level of a single functional routine or software module.

At a simple level, and independent of the system as a whole, unit testing verifies that the routine provides correct output for a given set of inputs.

Module testing is carried out to verify that the system performs as defined in a Design Specification (See, Chapter 8 - Perform Qualification Activities).

 

Integration testing

Integration testing:

·         verifies that the system functions correctly as a whole

·         proves that all software modules correctly interface with each other to form the software system as defined in the design specification and functional specification

Integration testing is performed on the fully built system, as it is to be used by the end-users. Data from other external systems may, however, be provided by "dummy" interfaces.

Example: A manufacturing resource planning system might be tested with data provided from a flat file that simulates the interface to the inventory system, without requiring the inventory system to be involved in the testing.

Similarly a process control system can be tested by "dummying" inputs and outputs from field instructions in the plant.

 

System acceptance testing

System acceptance testing is the testing of the system’s interfaces to other systems in the computing environment.

It should cover both the testing of user requirements and system functionality. This not only ascertains that the system accepts data correctly from other systems, but also that it accurately passes data to downstream systems and correctly processes data within the system itself.

System acceptance testing is usually done separately from the integration testing in order to minimize the downtime and expertise requirements for the other systems.

The testing may be performed:

·         at the suppliers (and then repeated at the user site)

·         solely at the user site

 

Stress testing

Stress testing involves cataloguing the fact that the system fails in expected ways that are not catastrophic, yet are easily recognized as errors.

There are two categories of stress testing:

·         entering data that is outside the range of acceptable data from the system and ensuring that the data is flagged as an error

·         testing the system with a high volume of transactions. The objective is to determine the maximum operational capacity at which the system can be run without danger of loss or corruption of data. Based on this type of testing, the system developer will rate the system’s maximum operational capacity

These two types of stress testing should be performed by the developer of the system as part of module testing and integration testing rather than as a separate activity.

Similar testing of the system related to the user’s planned operation and environment should be included as part of the Performance Qualification (See, the topic Performance Qualification in Chapter 8 - Perform Qualification Activities).

 

Relationship with OQ and PQ

For a standalone computer system, the system acceptance testing broadly equates to OQ and part of PQ. Some aspects of performance qualification may need to be performed by the user after system acceptance testing (especially for configurable software packages).

For an embedded system, system acceptance testing is only part of OQ/PQ since other machine performance checks of components which do not form a direct part of the system will need to be performed.

 

Traceability

It is very important that direct traceability is established between the specification and the test performed i.e. a cross reference from the test script back to the section in the appropriate specification where the function is defined.

This traceability ensures that all parts of the software are tested, and clearly establishes the acceptance criteria for a given test.

 

Computer System Retirement

 

Introduction

Planned and organized execution of computer system retirement is essential for business and quality-critical systems to ensure continuity of data.

 

Stages in retirement process

The stages in the retirement process depend on the definition of raw data for each system.

For regulatory systems, data must be archived either electronically or as some form of hardcopy (paper or fiche). Continued on-line access to data may be achieved by data migration to the replacement system, although this should be treated as a development project in its own right (design and testing of migration/translation tools, quality control of a proportion of transferred data, etc.).

A pre-retirement review of validation is necessary to ensure that the documentation and testing package is complete BEFORE the system is dismantled. The physical decommissioning process should be planned, ensuring overlap with the replacement system already operating successfully in its production environment.

 

Consideration for computer systems retirement during systems development

A key feature is that data archiving and retirement should be planned for at the initial requirements and design stages. Specifying the need for compact raw data prints including the full audit trail would help archiving. Ensuring the system can export all data types in a standardized, non-proprietary file structure would facilitate data migration.

 

Introduction to CSV Validation Responsibilities Before You Start Validation The Process Establish Teams(s) Determine Activities
Write the Protocol System Development Details Perform Qualification Activities Develop &  Review  Procedures Certify the System Review Periodically


Рейтинг@Mail.ru Rambler's Top100